School of Science Division of Life Science 13 Monitoring the Norm of Human Morphology Supervisor: CHOW King Lau / LIFS Student: RUPANI Rakshita / SSCI Course: UROP1000, Summer This paper re-evaluates the facial proportions of the Vitruvian Man - a drawing constructed by Leonardo da Vinci in about 1490 that defines human body proportions - and determines how accurate it is to African, Caucasian, and Hispanic ethnicities today. The paper also deduces the numerical ratios that define certain facial features that allow differentiation between ethnicities. Measurements of facial features - in samples collected from the Internet - were done to calculate ratios. The ratios obtained from samples of different ethnicities (same gender) were compared using t-tests. Only some ratios allowed differentiation between ethnicities. Data from females gave more consistent measurements than men. Africans were less related to Caucasians and Hispanics, while Caucasians and Hispanics has a stronger correlation. Genetic Identification of Negative Regulator of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Pathway Negative Regulator Supervisor: CHOW King Lau / LIFS Student: CHOI You Jin / BIOT Course: UROP1100, Summer Body size is one of the most important phenotypic features in animal species. Although we understand that signaling pathways control body size, the molecular mechanism and how the downstream effectors are regulated are poorly understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a conserved Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway, the Sma/Mab pathway, is the predominant regulator of body size. LON-1, a member of the cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family, acts as the negative regulator to suppress the small body size phenotype when mutations in lon-1 gene occur. To understand why lon-1 worms are long, we aim to understand whether the Lon phenotype of lon-1 mutant can be modulated by different collagen gene functions to control the body size of C. elegans. Analysis of Surface Delivery of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors Supervisor: GUO Yusong / LIFS Student: CHENG Guo / SSCI Course: UROP1000, Summer In intracellular trafficking, Trans-Golgi Network (TGN) is the transportation hub that sorts proteins to various downstream destinations including endosomes, plasma membrane, etc. The surface delivery of Vangl2, a conserved signaling receptor regulating Planar Cell Polarity (PCP), has been one important research direction in understanding the elaborate sorting mechanisms. It was previously demonstrated that both AP1 and Arfrp1 are involved in the transportation of Vangl2 from TGN to the plasma membrane. (Guo, Zanetti & Schekman, 2013) Here we purified AP1 core to study the interaction between AP1 core and Vangl2, as well as the function of Arfrp1 in regulating the TGN export of Vangl2.