UROP Proceedings 2021-22

School of Science Division of Life Science 33 Interdisciplinary Bioengineering: Microfluidic Device for Cell Manipulation/Culture and Molecular Biology Supervisor: WU Angela Ruohao / LIFS Student: PARK Junhyeok / BIEN Course: UROP1100, Spring DNA sequencing is one of the most important techniques in science and medicine, as it can tell a lot of information about DNA sequence of molecules, such as cancer cells or virus. Knowing them is beneficial in our lives as they can be used to figure out treatments to diseases as well. This report will explain what DNA sequencing is, then explain what the different types of DNA sequencing are including traditional Sanger sequencing as well as Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) such as Illumina. It will then illustrate what are different methods in preparing DNA fragments that can be used in DNA sequencing. Furthermore, some of applications of DNA sequencing will also be addressed, which include how DNA sequencing helps treatment of cancer in patients. Finally, some data analysis will also be addressed. Genetic Studies on Stem Cell Regulation Supervisor: XIE Ting / LIFS Co-supervisor: TU Renjun / LIFS Student: HO Lok Yin / BCB Course: UROP1000, Summer Adult stem cells are unspecialized cells that can generate and replenish a tissue. Its abilities of self-renewal and differentiation combined with gene editing will provide the potential for regenerative medicine (Kanherkar et al., 2014). Given that stem cells still have various uncertainties regarding their usage and safety, further study on stem cell biology is required. Analysis of Germline stem cell (GSC) development in Drosophila gives insights into the regulatory mechanism. Recent studies indicate that multiple signaling pathways and interactions with the niche are involved in the progeny differentiation of GSCs (Tu et al., 2020). Genetic screenings using tissue-specific Gal4-UAS are conducted for identifying genes that regulate selfrenewal and differentiation in Drosophila GSCs. Until the 18th of August, 3 genes showed abnormal phenotypes in cystoblasts (CB). In future studies, further investigation on phosphate and kinase genes will be conducted. Genetic Studies on Stem Cell Regulation Supervisor: XIE Ting / LIFS Co-supervisor: TU Renjun / LIFS Student: HO Wing Chi / BIBU Course: UROP1100, Summer Stem cells possess great clinical potential in areas such as regenerative medicine due to their ability to selfrenew and differentiate into one or more cell types. Thus, understanding stem cells is essential to fully harness their potential. Germline stem cell (GSC) is a type of adult stem cell which is responsible for gamete production. Studies on GSC development have always been a crucial aspect of advancing our knowledge about stem cells. Drosophila is one of the effective models for studying GSC behavior. In this study, Drosophila ovaries are examined, and genetic screening is performed to identify genes involved in GSC development. Seven genes are hitherto found to be related to GSC development. Their specific roles in GSC development will be further investigated in future studies.