CARE2022 Hong Kong Conference

38 4 Nexus between Mitigation and Adaptation “The challenge is to consider how interventions can work together to improve the current development paradigm and differentiate the urban design of Hong Kong such that it tackles our specific mitigation and adaptation problems, and provides a better living experience with resilient placemaking that works in concert with the land we have.” Eli Konvitz Chair of the Programming and Events Committee, Urban Land Institute • What ecosystems services are serving Hong Kong in light of the large percentage of land with natural assets, such as woodland, shrubland, grassland, mangroves, swamps, fish and shrimp ponds etc (>66%) and how could they be enhanced through restoration? Landslide risk in Hong Kong Workshop A noted landslides and debris flows caused more than 10 million casualties and US$80 billion in financial loss around the world between 1970 and 2022.5 Slope safety is a major concern in Hong Kong considering the city’s hilly topography. Presentations by HKO (Chapter 2) and GEO/CEDD (Chapter 3) provided the backdrop to landslide risk in Hong Kong. The Centre for Slope Safety at HKUST works closely with the authorities to identify knowledge gaps and find ways to increase slope safety. Going forward, challenges include: 1. Embedding in the design of slope management practices the increasing incidences of extreme rainfall events. Smart Barrier System (IoT Technology) 2. Adding an early landslide warning system within the current warning system specifically for extreme rainfall. 3. Improving the understanding of the initiation and failure mechanisms of slopes under extreme rainstorms. 4. Improving the understanding of how green preventative measures can help under extreme rainfall conditions. 5. Strengthening public awareness of and preparedness for landslide hazards, as landslides have become rare in urban areas due to good management. In addition to the methods and technology shown by GEO/ CEDD (noted in Chapter 3), studies are being carried out to understand landslide initiation, slope failure mechanisms and the interaction between landslide debris and designing barrier systems. With today’s computing power and Big Data/ AI capabilities, unprecedented modelling is being carried out to simulate extreme rainfall events under specially created conditions. Moreover, Hong Kong and the mainland are cooperating to construct the world’s longest model on a mountain side in Kunming to conduct tests. Continuous investment in slope safety research and application of technology not only helps Hong Kong to deal with a major climate risk, but also to be among the best in the world in the field, including developing climate-tech solutions that are exportable to other places facing similar risks (see also Chapter 7 for Prof. Charles Ng’s presentation). Eli Konvitz, Urban Land Institute