CARE2022 Hong Kong Conference

47 • Public education and slope safety Given the mountainous topography, with some 60,000 manmade slopes and more than 60% of land with steep terrain, Hong Kong is exposed to risks of landslide normally triggered by heavy rain brought by tropical cyclones and troughs of low pressure. The Hong Kong Slope Safety System, implemented since the establishment of the GEO in 1977, has been highly effective in substantially reducing landslide risks. However, it is anticipated that the landslide risks will increase with the projected increase in extreme rainfall events due to climate change. Over the years, the GEO provided 24-hour year-round 5 Preparedness and Resilience landslide emergency service, and established the interdepartmental multi-faceted Common Operational Picture for emergency management; implementing the Po Shan Drainage Tunnel and its digital twin1 for stabilizing land of adverse geotechnical settings; developing smart barrier system for monitoring landslide impact; deploying remote sensing techniques and robotics for landslide identification and inspection; informing instant map-based landslide locations for enhancing public communication; and promoting public education for increasing public awareness of potential to landslide risks and providing landslide self-help tips (see also Chapters 3, 4 and 7). FIGURE 5.6 Evolution of landslide risk in Hong Kong Source: GEO Overall landslide risk 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Year 1977 Landslide risk cannot be zero Hong Kong Slope Safety System Extreme rainfall events brought by climate change Establishment of Hong Kong slope safety system by the CEO Risk increase due to population growth, slope degradation and more frequent extreme weather events No. of landslide fatalities in the year 149