CARE2022 Hong Kong Conference

50 5 Preparedness and Resilience The underwater remotely operated vehicle was designed to perform various tasks such as underwater SAR and subsea survey. The unmanned aircraft systems could carry different devices, such as high-resolution camera, thermal imaging camera, spot light and loudspeaker. FSD also employed the AI technology in detecting human objects from the analysis of hundreds to thousands of photos taken by camera on board the UAS during mountain SAR operations. Under extreme conditions, such as the case of Typhoon Mangkhut in 2018, FSD also supported community recovery through its volunteer teams. To arouse the public awareness of severe weather conditions, safety tips and warnings were posted via FSD Facebook page and YouTube Channel from time to time. II: Security of Essential Infrastructure • Airport’s resilience to extreme weather To strengthen the resilience of the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) to extreme weather and its adaptive capacity to the changing climate, AAHK commissioned an 18-month climate resilience study in 2020. Coastal flooding due to sea level rise and extreme weather events, damage of runways, airport terminals and power installations, and problems with access roads and transport networks surrounding the airport were identified as risk factors. Climate scenarios RCP4.5/6.0 and RCP 8.5 (50th and 95th percentile) of IPCC AR5 and H++ sea level rise scenario2 of US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) were considered in the deep dive assessment of physical risks for six priority assets (airfield (including runway and drainage), airfield power distribution system, airfield tunnel, baggage handling system, terminal and building structures and chiller and seawater systems) and the following hazards for 2030, 2050 and 2100: • Typhoons (wind and storm surge) • Sea level rise • Extreme rainfall • Tidal flooding • Lightning strikes • Average annual temperature FIGURE 5.12 Climate projections for Hong Kong considered by AAHK Source: AAHK Temperature increase Climate projections 2030 2050 2100 Annual temperature increases (ºC relative to 1986-2005) 1.4ºC 2.4ºC 5.5ºC Typhoon and storm surge Climate projections 1986-2005 2030 2050 2100 Frequency ~6 affecting HK each year -5.5% -9% -17.7% Intensity (10-min wind speed) – +3.4% +5.4% +10.5% Frequency of Cat 4-5 typhoons – +7.7% +12.5% +24.5% Typhoon associated precipitation – +9.8% +15.9% +31.2% Extreme rainfall and related flooding Climate projections 1986-2005 2030 2050 2100 Annual number of extreme rainfall days (daily rainfall ≥ 100mm) 4.2 6.2 7.6 7.4 Annual maximum daily rainfall 221mm 359mm 413mm 534mm Climate Projections for Hong Kong under RCP8.5