CARE2022 Hong Kong Conference

51 The study concluded that HKIA already had a high level of resilience to climate change with the existing controls in place, as follow: • Operational procedures • Monitoring and maintenance • Emergency management • Physical system protection To further enhance HKIA’s resilience, a Climate Adaptation and Resilience Plan (CARP) has been formulated to set out a list of actions. CARP is to be reviewed every five years or as part of planned major investments or changes in infrastructures. A Climate Resilience Guidance Note has also been developed to communicate AAHK’s expectation to embed climate change considerations into future infrastructure development or asset renewals. AAHK has also adopted the TCFD framework3 to position AAHK as a leader in Hong Kong and among its peers in the aviation sector. • Energy security As extreme weather could lead to widespread power supply interruptions, climate change will bring increasing challenges to energy security due to: • Stronger (super) typhoons – damaging overhead lines and structures of power stations. 5 Preparedness and Resilience • More intense storm surge and heavier rain – flooding of generation plants along the coast and low-lying power substations. • Rising temperature and heat waves – temperature effects on generation capacity and equipment rating. CLP has undertaken a Climate Change Risk Assessment for 2030 (near-term), 2050 (mid-term) and 2080 (far-term). A prudent approach using the worst values, based on RCP8.5 (‘business as usual’ scenario) climate projections of IPCC AR5, was adopted, with localised data from HKO as baseline. The following adaptation measures were developed: Reinforcements i) Super typhoons – strengthen tower structures and foundations of 400 kV overhead lines (OHL), implement predictive vegetation management system to predict the growth of vegetation for timely pruning. ii) Storm surge and heavy rain – regular flooding assessment and mitigation measures for new and existing substations (flood gates, sump pumps, cable sealing, flood alarm systems), flood calculator to evaluate flooding risk at substations during typhoons and deploy asset-specific anti-flooding measures in power stations (sea walls, flood gates, flood barriers). iii) Heat wave – new standard for equipment against high temperature of 45ºC since 2007. Network design i) Closed ring and ‘N-1’ design4 adopted. ii) Backed up by interconnectors for fast recovery. iii) Remote monitoring and control capability. Operational monitoring Daily load forecasting model is operated in cooperation with HKO to trigger Peak Demand Management when appropriate, e.g., during extreme high temperature conditions. Incentive for customers to reduce consumption during peak demand period is also in place. Emergency response i) Emergency restoration system for 400 kV OHL. ii) Mobile generators for swift supply restoration. FIGURE 5.13 Sea level rise projections considered by AAHK Source: AAHK 2.9 2.5 1.28 0.5 China Water Risk – 1.5ºC warming, “outlying plausible reality” (CWR) RCP8.5, continuing current emissions beyond 2100 (IPCC) RCP4.5/6.0, Moderate reduction in emissions (IPCC) H++, plausible projection considering more rapid ice sheet loss (US NOAA) H++ 2100 sea level risk was also examined in the physical risk assessment CLIMATE SCENARIO 2100 Sea Level Rise