CARE2022 Hong Kong Conference

63 5 Preparedness and Resilience 1. The digital twin simulates the actual groundwater monitoring system installed at the Po Shan Drainage Tunnel in a virtual model and provides real-time data for monitoring purposes. 2. The H++ scenario was developed by NOAA in 2017 for the Fourth National Climate Assessment of the USA in which a global sea level rise of 2.5 m was projected for 2100 under the premise that the physics governing ice Antarctic ice sheet mass loss will change after mid-century due to overall warmer global temperatures. The H++ scenario is at present highly uncertain and is a topic of ongoing scientific research. 3. TCFD stands for the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures, and its framework is designed to help public companies and other organizations disclose climate-related risks and opportunities. 4. ‘N-1’ means the power transmission grid shall be capable of experiencing outage of a single transmission line, cable, transformer or generator without causing losses in electricity supply. 5. Hung Chak Ho, Kevin Ka-Lun Lau, Chao Ren, Edward Ng, “Characterizing prolonged heat effects on mortality in a sub-tropical high-density city, Hong Kong”, International Journal on Biometeorology, Nov 2017, 61(11), p1935-1944. 6. Dan Wang, Kevin Ka-Lun Lau, Chao Ren, William Bernard Goggins, Yuan Shi, Hung Chak Ho, Tsz-Cheung Lee, Lap-Shun Lee, Jean Woo, Edward Ng, “The impact of extremely hot weather events on all-cause mortality in a highly urbanized and densely populated subtropical city: A 10-year time-series study (2006-2015)”, The Science of the Total Environment, Nov 10 2019, 690, p923931. 7. Yuan Shi, Chao Ren, Meng Cai, Kevin Ka-Lun Lau, Tsz-Cheung Lee, Wai-Kin Wong, “Assessing spatial variability of extreme hot weather conditions in Hong Kong: A land use regression approach”, Environmental Research, Volume 171, April 2019, p403-415. 8. Junyi Hua, Xuyi Zhang, Chao Ren, Yuan Shi, Tsz-Cheung Lee, “Spatiotemporal assessment of extreme heat risk for high-density cities: A case study of Hong Kong from 2006 to 2016”, Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 64, January 2021, 102507. 9. Keith Dear and Zhan Wang, “Climate and health: mortality attributable to heat and cold”, The Lancet, Vol 386, Issue 9991, July 25, 2015, p320-322. 10. K L Lee, Y H Chan, T C Lee, William B Goggins, Emily Y Y Chan, “The development of the Hong Kong Heat Index for enhancing the heat stress information service of the Hong Kong Observatory”, International Journal on Biometeorology, Jul 2016, 60(7), p1029-1039. 11. See