Public Policy Bulletin (4th Issue - March 2023)

3 and ecology divisions focused predominantly on pollution control, followed by climate change mitigation. Very little effort has been expended on climate change adaptation becasue of the unsuccessful transfer of climate change adaptation functions from the development and reform commissions to the bureaus of ecology and environment. Recommendations As risks caused by climate change are systematic and will affect all facets of the socio-economic system, an integrated approach to risk management is necessary. This section offers policy recommendations. Incorporating climate risk governance into national development strategies Domestically, China could build a complete climate risk governance system by merging its disaster risk management and climate adaptation systems as well as by integrating key concepts and strategies into existing laws, plans, and policies for managing climate risk. 2012. Case Study: Climate change adaptation–Qingdao's "policy bundling" model Qingdao nested climate change adaptation into its sponge city pilot program and low-carbon city pilot program in the last decade. The sponge city pilot in Qingdao started with renovating old communities and urban renewal but contributed to climate change adaptation through the synergistic impacts of water management and infrastructure renovation. On the other hand, the low-carbon city pilot program brought synergistic effects of decarbonization and climate change adaptation to the building of a sustainable and resilient city. Qingdao’s climate adaptation work relied mainly, however, on “policy bundling” that nested climate change adaptation into related policy categories, e.g., lowcarbon city pilots and sponge city pilots, rather than on a systematic and targeted strategy. Relevant environment Institution Key Responsibilities National Committee for Disaster Reduction (NCDR) • Formulate national guidelines, policies, and plans for disaster reduction • Coordinate major disaster reduction activities • Guide local governments in carrying out disaster reduction work • Promote international exchanges and cooperation in disaster reduction National Headquarters for Flood and Drought Control (NHFDC) • Formulate national policies and regulations for flood control and drought relief • Prepare flood control plans for large rivers and water transfer plans across jurisdictions • Keep abreast of national floods, droughts, and disasters, and organize the implementation of flood and drought relief measures • Unify the control and dispatch of water from water conservancy and hydropower facilities, manage floods, organize post-disaster disposal Forest and Grassland Fire Prevention (NHFGFP) • Guide the work of forest fire prevention and the fight against serious forest fires nationwide • Coordinate with relevant departments to solve problems in forest fire prevention • Review the implementation of policies, laws, and regulations on forest fire prevention in all regions and departments • Supervise the investigation and handling of forest fire cases and accountability and make decisions on forest fire prevention Ministry of Emergency Management (MEM) • Organize the overall national emergency plans and actions • Guide all regions and departments in responding to emergencies, promote the construction of emergency response plan systems, and organize drills • Clarify the division of responsibilities with relevant departments and localities, and establish a coordination and cooperation mechanism State Council National Leading Group on Climate Change (NLGCC) Ministry of Ecology and Environment (MEE) Ministry of Emergency Management (MEE) National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) Ministry of Science and Technology (MST) China Meteorological Administration (CMA) Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) Ministry of Transport (MOT) Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development (MOHURD) National Health Commission (NHC) People’s Bank of China (PBoC) Department of Climate Change National Center for Climate Change Strategy and International Cooperation (NCSC) China National Expert Committee on Climate Change (CNECCC) Department of Resource Conservation and Environmental Protection Energy/Research Institution (ERI) National Climate Center (NCC) China Academy of Transportation Science (CATS) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) Green Finance Committee of China Society for Finance and Banking (GFC) Counselor’s Office of the State Council (COSC) Development Research Center of the State Council (DRC) China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development (CCICED) Government Affiliated Think Tanks Table 1 Key Institutions for disaster risk governance Figure 2 Insitutions involved in climate change adaptation Strengthening Climate Risk Governance in China: Disaster risk management and climate change adaptation Public Policy BULLETIN