Science Focus (issue 25)

Dear Readers, Welcome to a new issue of Science Focus. In the age of artificial intelligence, it was tempting to write this letter with one of the pervasive online tools, especially after reading the article on ChatGPT in this issue. Nevertheless, there is much to be learned about how to ask the right questions in order to prompt ChatGPT to do exactly what we want. In addition, it is important to remember that we are still the main drivers in knowledge generation, based on novel observations and discoveries. In this post pandemic era, it has become common knowledge on how vaccines triggered the production of antibodies to combat deadly viral invaders. It turns out the structure of antibodies from alpacas and their relatives is rather different from ours. Read more about how scientists have leveraged on alpaca antibodies for research and therapeutics. Staying with advances in biomedical science, you can learn more about how medical devices can be removed by infiltration with a liquid metal, and how our fingerprints are determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Many efforts have been made in reducing the use of plastics, but how can we get rid of plastic waste more efficiently? Some scientists found unexpected inspirations from insects and bacteria. Finally, for those of you who play the game Wordle, we provide a quick guide on how to maximize your chance of getting the elusive green squares. As we enter a new school year, I hope Science Focus continues to be the bridge between recent scientific advances and what you learn in textbooks. As always, we welcome your suggestions and comments via our social media pages. Yours faithfully, Prof. Ho Yi Mak Editor-in-Chief 親愛的讀者: 歡迎閱讀最新一期《科言》!在這個人工智能盛行的年代,相關應 用程式有如雨後春筍般湧現,在讀過今期關於 ChatGPT 的文章後,讓 我以此作為今期〈主編的話〉的引子。對於如何問 ChatGPT正確的問 題才能使其做出我們所想,仍有待慢慢學習,但此外更重要的是,我們 應該記住人類仍是知識的主要發現者,我們能透過細心觀察作出不一 樣的發現。 在後疫情年代,相信大家都熟識疫苗如何激發身體產生抗體以抵 禦致命病毒,但原來羊駝和近親朋友們製造出來的抗體結構與我們的 都不太一樣,閱讀後頁文章看看科學家如何把羊駝抗體應用於研究和 醫藥上。同樣是生物醫學上的突破,今期我們會介紹液態金屬如何能透 過滲入醫療裝置而把其移除,還會探討遺傳和環境因素如何共同決定 指紋樣式。社會一直致力減少使用塑膠,但我們如何能更有效地消除塑 膠廢料呢?科學家從昆蟲和細菌中找到意想不到的靈感。最後,我們為 有玩 Wordle 的讀者們送上一份簡易攻略,看看如何增加綠色框框出 現的機會吧! 在新學年裡,我希望《科言》繼續成為一道橋樑,連結科學界最新 發現和課本上的知識。一如以往,我們歡迎大家透過社交媒體把建議和 意見告訴我們。 主編 麥晧怡教授 敬上 Message from the Editor-in-Chief 主編的話 Copyright © 2023 HKUST E-mail: Homepage: Scientific Advisors 科學顧問 Prof. Yukinori Hirano平野恭敬教授 Prof. Ivan Ip 葉智皓教授 Prof. Tim Leung 梁承裕教授 Prof. Kenward Vong 黃敬皓教授 Editor-in-Chief 主編輯 Prof. Ho Yi Mak麥晧怡教授 Managing Editor 總編輯 Daniel Lau 劉劭行 Student Editorial Board學生編委 Editors 編輯 Sonia Choy 蔡蒨珩 Peace Foo 胡適之 Roshni Printer Charlton Sullivan 蘇柏安 Helen Wong 王思齊 Social Media Editor 社交媒體編輯 Zoey Tsang 曾鈺榆 Graphic Designers 設計師 Ligeia Fu 付一乙 Charley Lam 林曉薏 Evangeline Lei 雷雨晴 Coby Ngai 魏敏儀 Contents Science Focus Issue 025, 2023 What’s Happening in Hong Kong? 香港科技活動 InnoCarnival 2023 1 創新科技嘉年華 2023 The Shaw Prize 2023 Exhibition 2023 邵逸夫獎展覽 Mars 1001 火星千日行 Science Today 今日科學 The Procrastinator’s Guide to ChatGPT 2 遲來的 ChatGPT 懶人包 Unleashing Nature’s Plastic-Eating Marvels! 8 出來吧!自然界蠶吃塑膠的生物 Thinking Out of the Box: Removing Medical Devices 12 with a Liquid Metal 有何不可:利用液態金屬移除醫療裝置 Alpacas and Nanobodies 15 羊駝與奈米抗體 Amusing World of Science 趣味科學 Fingerprints: The Key to Our Individuality 18 指紋:判別個人身分的特徵 Demystifying Wordle: A Crash Course in 22 Information Theory Wordle 大揭秘:資訊理論 101